Hepatitis C and liver damage.
Hepatitis C is accompanied by liver damage due to the immune response not the direct effect of the virus. It almost exclusively infects hepatocytes and thus induces liver injury such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and HCC. The innate immune response is crucial in activated an antiviral state and priming the adaptive immune response, however; HCV core protein, Ns5A, and E2 interfere with innate immune responses by blocking signaling pthways and inhibiting their antiviral function.” According to the Handbook of Hepatitis C, “[f]ibrosis is a reversible process; reversion of the amount of fibrotic scarring in cases with established cirrhosis is frequently observed among HCV patients with sustained virologic response (SVR)...In chronic hepatitis C, the fibrogenic process appears to be mainly the result of viral-induced inflammation; inflammatory cells of the intrahepatic infiltrate secrete cytokines and chemokines that induce the activation of HSCs…the liver fibrosis progression rate is highly variable among patients with HCV; ranging from patients without fibrosis (even after several decades of infection) to patients who rapidly develop cirrhosis.” In chronic Hepatitis C, the prevalence of steatosis varies between 40% and 86% which is much higher than in the general population. A strong association between steatosis and HCV genotype 3 is now well recognized.
How much do you know?
We treat patients with confirmed Hep C with I.V. Ozone and specific German biologics to repair the liver and prevent fibrosis.
1. Although the following cells types are all found in the liver, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) almost exclusively infects _______________ in patients with the disease.
A. Sinusoidal endothelial cells
B. Kupffer cells
D. Resident immune cells
2. True or False. The liver damage that results in patients with HCV infection is due to the direct effects of the virus rather than an immune response.
3. How do HCV core protein, NS5A, and E2 interfere with innate immune responses?
A. By blocking signaling pathways
B. By inhibiting their antiviral function
C. A and B
4. All of the following statements about liver fibrosis in patients with HCV are true EXCEPT:
A. The progression rate of liver fibrosis is highly variable among patients with HCV
B. The fibrogenic process appears to be mainly the result of viral-induced inflammation
C. Fibrosis is an irreversible process
5. True or False. There is a strong association between steatosis and HCV 3 genotype.
We also recommend I.V.Glutathione drips with German Biologics for the liver and Xymogen's NAC to prevent fibrosis.
For complete information, see:
N. Goossens, Clément S, Negro F. Chapter 4: Pathophysiology. Handbook of Hepatitis C. Switzerland;2016:33-48.