Second Nature Care Blog

Rickettsia - Tickborne Infections - Lyme Disease - Ozone Therapies

[fa icon="calendar'] Sep 13, 2017 5:00:00 AM / by Winter Ninivaggi

What is Rickettsia?

Rickettsia infections are spread through ticks, mites, fleas or lice. Rickettsial infections include: anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and Q fever, Rickettsia parkeri infection and Rickettsia species 364D . The most deadly of the infections in the United states is Rickettsia rickettsii infection (Rocky Mountain spotted fever [RMSF]). Most of these cases occur in children ages 5-9 . The risk factors and severity of the disease depend on factors such as delay or lack of treatment, age, Native American decent,  G6PD or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and immunocompromised states.

RMSF typically presents itself with fever, headache and a rash.  "This triad is present in only 3% of early infections, but the prevalence increases to 60% to 70% by 2 weeks after the tick bite."  Other initial symptoms include generalized malaise, weekness and myalgia. Without the appropriate treatment, death can ocur 7-15 days after onset. Fever typically subsides within 24 - 48 hours of starting treatment. Failure to clinically improve within 48 hours suggests a different diagnosis. Long term effects of the infection can include: hearing loss, blindness and gangrene which can lead to amputations of digits and extremities.

The principal diagnostic test for RMSF is serologic testing with an immunoflourescence antibody assay. "Paired testing (during the acute and convalescent phases) has a sensitivity of 94%. A 4-fold or greater increase in antibody titer (with a minimum titer of 1:64) between acute and convalescent samples is considered diagnostic of acute infection."

According to the review article published in the Clevlan Clinic Journal of Medicine, " doxycline for 7 days is the treatment or choice for RMSF, Rickettsia parkeri infection, or Rickettsia species 364D infection, “including in pregnant patients with life-threatening disease and in children.”

1. While these are all rickettsial infections, which is the most common and most likely to cause death if left untreated?
A. Rickettsia parkeri infection
B. Rickettsia species 364D infection
C.
Rickettsia rickettsii infection (Rocky Mountain spotted fever [RMSF])

2. All of the following statements are true about RMSF EXCEPT:

A. Being of Native American descent increases the risk for severe RMSF disease
B. Without appropriate antibiotic therapy, the case-fatality rate with RMSF is over 20% and death occurs 7 to 15 days after symptoms onset
C.
Fever, headache, and a rash make up the classic triad of RMSF
D.
Most cases of RMSF occur in adults ages 25 to 35

3. Any of the following diagnostic tests can be performed in patients suspected to have RMSF, Rickettsia parkeri infection, or Rickettsia species 364D infection, but which is considered the principal diagnostic test?

A. Amplification of R rickettsii DNA by polymerase chain reaction
B.
Cell culture in a biosafety level 3 laboratory
C.
Immunohistochemical staining of a skin biopsy or autopsy specimen
D.
Serologic testing with an immunofluorescence antibody assay

4. While all of the following agents can be used in the treatment of RMSF, Rickettsia parkeri infection, or Rickettsia species 364D infection, which is the treatment of choice?

A. Chloramphenicol
B. Doxycycline
C.
Tetracycline
 

5. How many hours after starting treatment does fever typically subside in patients with RMSF?

A. Between 6 and 12 hours
B. More than 72 hours
C.
More than 72 hours

 Igenex is great first testing for Lyme and co-infections using PCR analysis. Advanced Labs in PA cultures Lyme bacteria to amplify it to see if it is alive. I and my patients want to know if we are looking at past antibody production or are we looking at an active disease state? Now, we are part of a study with Pharmasan to detect early Lyme.

If you have bitten by a tick within two weeks, call us and you are eligible for free testing as part of a study. We will draw and ship your blood and you will receive the results. 845 358-8385.

We test and treat Lyme and co-infections.  Ozone Therapy is a safe and effective treatment for Lyme and co-infections.  Let's discuss which Lyme test is the best test for you. You have testing choices and treatment options. All ozone therapies are MD ordered and RN administered in NYS.

Book Consult

Do you think you have Lyme? - Free Screening

Fight Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-Infections

Lyme Diseas - What you Need to Know

Answer Key:

1. C. Rickettsia rickettsii infection (Rocky Mountain spotted fever [RMSF])

2. D. Most cases of RMSF occur in adults ages 25 to 35

3. D. Serologic testing with an immunofluorescence antibody assay

4. B. Doxycycline

5. C. Within 24 to 48 hours

 

Topics: Ozone and Prolozone therapies

Winter Ninivaggi

Written by Winter Ninivaggi

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Isadora Guggenheim, ND, RN, MS, CNS LMT, owner of Second Nature Naturopathic Care, LLC
For all appointments: Tel: 845 358-8385 Fax: 845 358-2963 drguggenheim@msn.com